CBD is a nonintoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis and hemp : CANNABIDIOL according to the Webster dictionary.
Hemp has been the subject of controversy in the western world for the last century, but before that, it was essential in most countries.
Hemp was introduced in the American continent by the Spanish colonists in 1545. Cannabis had become a staple crop in New England by the 1630s, so it was well established by the time that George Washington began growing hemp at Mt. Vernon in 1765. He had found that tobacco was not as profitable as he had hoped, and so began growing hemp and flax as alternatives.
And Washington wasn’t the only founding father who grew hemp. Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin were also cannabis farmers.
The wonders of modern medical cannabis date from the 1830s, when an Irish physician named William Brooke O’Shaughnessy traveled to India where he learned of it’s medical applications, He published his findings in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and kicked off the “golden age” of medical cannabis. Hemp wasn’t just for rope and textiles anymore.
In 1906, the consumer protection Pure Food and Drug act intended to prevent the addition of harmful additives to food and medicine. Eventually, the act led to the creation of the FDA. The law required drug labels to list “addictive” or “dangerous” ingredients on the label. Along with alcohol, morphine, and opium, cannabis was on the list of dangerous drugs.
In 1940 a team of scientists at the University of Illinois were the first to isolate cannabidiol, or CBD, from the cannabis plant. Led by Dr. Roger Adams, the researchers thought at the time that CBD was an inactive substance.
Hemp was always used for fabrics and rope, mainly during the second world war, then The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) of 1970 placed cannabis under federal control. It also led to the creation of the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) in 1973. Although the CSA contained a specific exemption for industrial hemp, the DEA’s interpretation of the law led to a ban on all forms of cannabis.
California’s Compassionate Use Act of 1996, or Proposition 215, was a statewide ballot initiative that passed with 56 percent of the vote. Its passage made medical marijuana legal in the state, although federal officials spent more than a decade actively challenging the law. Soon, as the federal government continued to categorize cannabis as a schedule 1 drug, individual states passed laws to provide access to cannabis for patients who could benefit from the plant.
In June of 2018, the FDA approved Epidiolex. This potent CBD product is indicated for Dravet syndrome and Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, both of which are severe and hard-to-treat forms of epilepsy. As a result, the DEA rescheduled some cannabidiol products so that the drug could be brought to market. Essentially, the agency’s policy listed all cannabis extracts as Schedule I, except for CBD products that had FDA approval. These were recategorized as Schedule V.
On Thursday, December 20, President Trump signed into law the 2018 Agriculture Improvement Act (a.k.a. the “Farm Bill“). This law transformed the regulatory status of hemp in the US by changing the legal definition of the word “hemp.” Under federal law, hemp now includes hemp-derived products, including cannabinoids like CBD.
Furthermore, the law modified the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 to clarify that the term “marihuana” does not include hemp. These changes removed hemp-derived CBD from the DEA’s purview, and placed it under the authority of the USDA and FDA.
In 2019, the governor of Florida signed into law Senate Bill 1020, which allowed the growth of CBD dominant strains of industrial hemp. The bill also made it legal for people to manufacture and sell CBD products that would be extracted from the industrial hemp.
Types of available Hemp oils:
1. What is Full-Spectrum CBD?
If an extract is full-spectrum, this means it contains all phytochemicals naturally found in the plant, including CBD, trace cannabinoids, terpenes, and essential oils. Full-spectrum extracts from hemp also come with a negligible THC content — below 0.3%
The full spectrum of the active compounds extracted from hemp work together to amplify the health benefits of each individual cannabinoid. This phenomenon is referred to as the entourage effect (more on that later).
Although non-psychoactive, full-spectrum CBD can give you a false positive during a drug test, especially if you consume high doses of CBD oil daily.
2. What is Broad Spectrum CBD?
Broad-spectrum CBD contains cannabidiol and all the other compounds within the plant, save for THC, which is completely removed after the initial extraction.
Because broad-spectrum extracts contain multiple cannabinoids, they also produce the “entourage effect,” but without the THC.
In a very simplified manner, broad-spectrum CBD is like a mix between full-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate. It contains the entire spectrum of cannabinoids EXCEPT for the THC part.
3. What is CBD Isolate?
CBD isolate is the purest form of this compound, made by pulling it from its natural environment and removing it from all other ingredients.
“The advantage of using CBD isolate over other formats is the highest concentration of CBD per serving. Isolates are usually 99% pure, meaning that one gram of isolate powder carries about 990 mg of CBD. There’s no entourage effect, though — you can benefit solely from the effects of cannabidiol, hence the lower price of such products and lower demand than full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD” says Augustine Hanger of Colorado-based hemp CBD grower IHF, LLC.